Strengthening safety climate is recognized as a necessary strategy for improving patient safety. Yet there is little empirical evidence linking hospitals' safety climate with safety outcomes.The authors explored the potential relationship between safety climate and Veterans Health Administration hospital safety performance using the Patient Safety Indicator (PSI) rates. Safety climate survey data were merged with hospital discharge data to calculate PSIs. Linear regressions examined the relationship between hospitals' safety climate and dimensions of safety climate with individual PSIs and a PSI composite measure, controlling for organizational-level variables. Safety climate overall was not related to the PSIs or to the PSI composite, although a few individual dimensions of safety climate were associated with specific PSIs. Perceptions of frontline staff were more closely aligned with PSIs than those of senior managers.