Periodontitis as a potential risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a retrospective study

Indian J Dent Res. Oct-Dec 2009;20(4):466-70. doi: 10.4103/0970-9290.59456.


Aims and objectives: A relationship between poor periodontal health and respiratory disease has been suggested by a number of recent studies. The present study was undertaken to evaluate potential association between respiratory diseases and periodontal health status and to co-relate the severity of periodontal disease with that of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Materials and methods: 150 patients of COPD (test group) and 50 Patients without COPD (control group) were recruited for the study. Information regarding patient's demographic and socioeconomic status and lifestyle (history of smoking) were considered in the study. Patients with COPD were grouped into mild, moderate and severe category on the basis of Spirometry. Periodontal health was assessed by measuring probing pocket depth, Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL) and Oral Hygiene Index (OHI).

Results: The results showed that the subjects with COPD had significantly more mean CAL) and a higher mean OHI than those without COPD. The risk for COPD appeared to be significantly elevated when attachment loss was found to be severe. A trend was noted in that lung function appeared to diminish as the amount of attachment loss increased.

Conclusion: On the basis of the observed results of the study it can be concluded that the risk for COPD appeared to be significantly elevated when attachment loss was found to be severe. It is conceivable that oral interventions that improve oral health status may prove to lower the severity of lung infection in susceptible populations.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Dental Calculus / complications
  • Dental Deposits / complications
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Forced Expiratory Volume / physiology
  • Gingival Hemorrhage / complications
  • Humans
  • Income
  • Life Style
  • Male
  • Maximal Midexpiratory Flow Rate / physiology
  • Oral Hygiene Index
  • Periodontal Attachment Loss / complications
  • Periodontal Index
  • Periodontal Pocket / complications
  • Periodontitis / classification
  • Periodontitis / complications*
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / classification
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / etiology*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking
  • Social Class
  • Spirometry
  • Vital Capacity / physiology