CH-19 Sweet is a newly found chili pepper breed bearing much less pungent fruits. Because CH-19 Sweet fruits were found to contain three analogs (capsinoids) of capsaicin, a major component of pungency of hot peppers (the analogs are capsiate or CST, dihydrocapsiate or DCT, and nordihydrocapsiate or NDCT), we assessed in this study the bio-potencies of these three capsinoids by comparing them with capsaicin. The three capsinoids bound to transient potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors expressed in cultured cells and activated Ca(2+) influx in a concentration-dependent manner with similar magnitudes. In contrast to capsaicin, capsinoids at the same concentration induced virtually no nociceptive responses when applied to the eyes or the oral cavities of mice. Intravenous administration of capsaicin or 20-fold increased doses of each capsinoid to rats induced significant increases in plasma catecholamine levels. Orally administered, each capsinoid enhanced oxygen consumption in mice. Based on the present results, capsaicin and these three capsinoids should have similar bio-potency, though capsinoids do not generate pungency or sensory irritation.