Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a distinct subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) characterized by the expression of CD30 in lymphoma cells. Like aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the risk of developing PTCL is also increased in the setting of HIV infection. To date, the occurrence of ALCL in HIV-positive individuals is limited to a few case reports and small case series. A total of 37 cases of HIV-associated ALCL were identified after reviewing the available published literature. Analysis of these cases showed that this group of HIV-infected patients was on average 38 years of age with a male-to-female ratio of 4:1, and a reported median CD4 cell count of 83 cells/mm(3). HIV-associated ALCL cells rarely expressed anaplastic lymphoma kinase. Epstein-Barr virus infection was associated with one-third of the cases. These lymphomas manifested almost exclusively with extranodal involvement and exhibited a very aggressive clinical course. The median overall survival was 5 months. The administration of chemotherapy and early stages at presentation were identified as good prognostic factors, while the use of HAART showed a statistical trend toward improved survival in HIV-associated ALCL.