Nuclear DNA is tightly packaged into chromatin, which profoundly influences DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination. The extensive interactions between the basic histone proteins and acidic DNA make the nucleosomal unit of chromatin a highly stable entity. For the cellular machinery to access the DNA, the chromatin must be unwound and the DNA cleared of histone proteins. Conversely, the DNA has to be repackaged into chromatin afterward. This review focuses on the roles of the histone chaperones in assembling and disassembling chromatin during the processes of DNA replication and repair.
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