We investigated the effects of different essential oils on adipogenesis in rat subcutaneous adipocytes. Subcutaneous preadipocytes were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) containing insulin, transferrin, fibroblast growth factor, dexamethasone, indomethacin, fetal bovine serum, and an essential oil at 37 degrees C in 5% CO2 to induce their differentiation. After 7 days, the number of viable cells and the amount of triglycerides accumulated in the cells were determined. Differentiation markers such as the enzymatic activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and the expression of GPDH and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) genes were also measured, as well as the intracellular Ca2+ levels. We found that grapefruit oil inhibited the accumulation of triglycerides in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations of 50 to 400 microg/mL. Furthermore, it suppressed the expression of GPDH and caused a 70% decrease in the enzymatic activity of GPDH at a concentration of 50 microg/mL. Grapefruit oil also caused a nearly 2-fold increase in the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ and suppressed the expression of PPAR gamma genes. Our results demonstrate that grapefruit oil efficiently inhibits adipogenesis in cultured subcutaneous preadipocytes and adipocytes.
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.