Loxoscelism is caused by envenomation by spiders from Loxosceles genus. Clinical symptoms only appear a few hours after envenomation and can evolve in local reactions, such as dermonecrosis, and systemic reactions, such as intravascular haemolysis, intravascular coagulation and renal failure. Current therapies are not effective, often not based in scientific research and can be even detrimental. A lack of understanding of the mechanism of action of the venom of the Loxosceles spider had thus far prevented development of effective therapies. In this review we aim to give an overview of our contributions to the understanding of the mechanism of action of the Loxosceles venom and propose targets and therapeutics for medical intervention.
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