Several outbreaks of anaemia, jaundice, abortion and mortality in cattle in New South Wales were attributed to the intracellular parasite, Theileria buffeli. Disease occurred predominantly in periparturient animals that had been moved from inland to coastal areas. Diagnosis was made via exclusion of other causes of haemolytic anaemia and observation of the parasite in blood smears. Treatments included both registered and non-registered products. There is a possibility of a new strain of Theileria sp. in Australia and the possible vectors encountered in NSW are discussed.