Ischemia-reperfusion injury is the major cause of delayed graft function in transplanted kidneys, an early event significantly affecting long-term graft function and survival. Several studies in rodents suggest that the alternative pathway of the complement system plays a pivotal role in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, limited information is currently available from humans and larger animals. Here we demonstrated that 30 minutes of ischemia resulted in the induction of C4d/C1q, C4d/MLB, and MBL/MASP-2 deposits in a swine model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. The infusion of C1-inhibitor led to a significant reduction in peritubular capillary and glomerular C4d and C5b-9 deposition. Moreover, complement-inhibiting treatment significantly reduced the numbers of infiltrating CD163(+), SWC3a(+), CD4a(+), and CD8a(+) cells. C1-inhibitor administration led to significant inhibition of tubular damage and tubular epithelial cells apoptosis. Interestingly, we report that focal C4d-deposition colocalizes with C1q and MBL at the peritubular and glomerular capillary levels also in patients with delayed graft function. In conclusion, we demonstrated the activation and a pathogenic role of classical and lectin pathways of complement in a swine model of ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal damage. Therefore, inhibition of these two pathways might represent a novel therapeutic approach in the prevention of delayed graft function in kidney transplant recipients.