Access to quality cancer care is often unavailable in low-income and middle-income countries, and also in rural or remote areas of high-income countries. Teleoncology-oncology applications of medical telecommunications, including pathology, radiology, and other related disciplines-has the potential to enhance access to and quality of clinical cancer care, and to improve education and training. Implementation of teleoncology in the developing world requires an approach tailored to priorities, resources, and needs. Teleoncology can best achieve its proposed goals through consistent and long-term application. We review teleoncology initiatives that have the potential to decrease cancer-care inequality between resource-poor and resource-rich institutions and offer guidelines for the development of teleoncology programmes in low-income and middle-income countries.
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