Reduction in surface contamination with antineoplastic drugs in 22 hospital pharmacies in the US following implementation of a closed-system drug transfer device

J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2011 Mar;17(1):39-48. doi: 10.1177/1078155210361431. Epub 2010 Feb 15.


Purpose: Surface contamination with the antineoplastic drugs cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and 5-fluorouracil was compared in 22 US hospital pharmacies following preparation with standard drug preparation techniques or the PhaSeal® closed-system drug transfer device (CSTD).

Methods: Wipe samples were taken from biological safety cabinet (BSC) surfaces, BSC airfoils, floors in front of BSCs, and counters and analyzed for contamination with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and 5-fluorouracil. Contamination was reassessed several months after the implementation of the CSTD. Surface contamination (ng/cm(2)) was compared between the two techniques and evaluated with the Signed Rank Test.

Results: Using the CSTD compared to the standard preparation techniques, a significant reduction in levels of contamination was observed for all drugs (cyclophosphamide: p < 0.0001; ifosfamide: p < 0.001; 5-fluorouracil: p < 0.01). Median values for surface contamination with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and 5-fluorouracil were reduced by 95%, 90%, and 65%, respectively.

Conclusions: Use of the CSTD significantly reduces surface contamination when preparing cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and 5-fluorouracil as compared to standard drug preparation techniques.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents / analysis*
  • Cyclophosphamide / analysis
  • Drug Compounding / methods
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods*
  • Equipment Contamination / prevention & control
  • Equipment Design
  • Fluorouracil / analysis
  • Humans
  • Ifosfamide / analysis
  • Occupational Exposure / prevention & control
  • Pharmacy Service, Hospital / methods*
  • Protective Devices
  • Time Factors
  • United States


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Fluorouracil
  • Ifosfamide