Characteristics, outcomes, and predictors of mortality at 3 months and 1 year in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure

Eur J Heart Fail. 2010 Mar;12(3):239-48. doi: 10.1093/eurjhf/hfq002.


Aims: Acute heart failure (AHF) has a poor prognosis. We evaluated 3- and 12-month mortality in different clinical classes of AHF patients from 30 European countries who were included in the EuroHeart Failure Survey (EHFS) II.

Methods and results: Follow-up data were available for 2981 AHF patients, of these 62% had a history of chronic HF. One-year mortality after discharge was lower in patients with de novo AHF when compared with acutely decompensated chronic HF (ADCHF), 16.4 vs. 23.2% (P < 0.001). Cardiogenic shock conferred the highest cumulative 1-year mortality (52.9%) as a result of in-hospital mortality of 39.3%. Long-term prognosis in decompensated AHF was also dismal. Hypertensive HF was associated with the lowest mortality (13.7% at 1 year). Age, prior myocardial infarction, creatinine level, and low plasma sodium were independently associated with mortality during the whole follow-up period. Diabetes, anaemia, and history of chronic HF were associated with worse and hypertension with better long-term survival. History of cerebrovascular disease was associated with worse short-term outcome.

Conclusion: Early and late mortality differ between de novo AHF and ADCHF and between clinical classes of AHF. EHFS II identifies clinical risk markers and demonstrates the importance of a thorough characterization of AHF populations according to history and clinical presentation.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers / therapeutic use
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Data Collection
  • Europe / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Health Status Indicators
  • Heart Failure / drug therapy
  • Heart Failure / mortality*
  • Hospital Mortality / trends*
  • Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Length of Stay
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors