Background: Lupin kernel flour (LKF) is a novel food ingredient that is high in protein and fibre. We have previously shown that partial substitution of refined wheat-derived carbohydrate in bread with protein and fibre from LKF can reduce appetite and energy intake acutely. In addition, several studies have suggested that lupin may reduce cholesterol concentrations and benefit glucose and insulin metabolism.
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on body weight and composition and blood lipids, glucose and insulin of an ad libitum LKF-enriched diet higher in dietary protein and fibre.
Subjects and methods: A total of 88 overweight and obese men and women were recruited for a 16-week parallel-design randomized controlled trial. Participants replaced 15-20% of their usual daily energy intake with white bread (control) or LKF-enriched bread (lupin) in an ad libitum diet. Measurements of body weight and composition, and fasting blood biochemical measurements were performed at baseline and 16 weeks. The primary analysis included 74 participants (37 per group) who completed the intervention.
Results: At baseline, mean (+/-s.d.) body mass index and total cholesterol were 30.6+/-3.5 kg m(-2) and 5.37+/-0.94 mmol l(-1), respectively. Estimated (mean between-group difference (95% confidence interval)) protein (13.7 (2.28, 25.0) g per day) and fibre (12.5 (8.79, 16.2) g per day) intakes were higher during the intervention with lupin than with control. For lupin relative to control, the net effects on body weight (-0.4 (-1.3, 0.6) kg), fat mass (-0.5 (-1.1, 0.2) kg) and percentage (-0.5 (-1.1, 0.1)%), plasma leptin (-1.66 (-4.91, 1.59) ng ml(-1)) and adiponectin (0.20 (-0.73, 1.13) mg l(-1), as well as serum total cholesterol (-0.08 (-0.38, 0.22) mmol l(-1)), triglycerides (0.09 (-0.10, 0.21) mmol l(-1)), glucose (0.10 (-0.11, 0.30) mmol l(-1)) and insulin (0.40 (-1.20, 2.00) mU l(-1)) were not significant.
Conclusions: This study does not support the proposal that an ad libitum diet enriched in LKF resulting in moderate changes in both protein and fibre intakes can benefit body weight and composition or fasting blood lipids, glucose and insulin concentrations in overweight men and women with mildly elevated total cholesterol concentrations.