Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress the expression of inflammatory and innate immune response genes in human microglia and astrocytes

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2010 Dec;5(4):521-32. doi: 10.1007/s11481-010-9192-0. Epub 2010 Feb 17.


Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been proposed as therapies for certain cancers and as an anti-reservoir therapy for HIV+ individuals with highly active anti-retroviral therapy, yet their roles in glial inflammatory and innate antiviral gene expression have not been defined. In this study, we examined the effects of two non-selective HDACi, trichostatin A and valproic acid, on antiviral and cytokine gene expression in primary human microglia and astrocytes stimulated with TLR3 or TLR4 ligand. HDACi potently suppressed the expression of innate antiviral molecules such as IFNβ, interferon-simulated genes, and proteins involved in TLR3/TLR4 signaling. HDACi also suppressed microglial and astrocytic cytokine and chemokine gene expression, but with different effects on different groups of cytokines. These results have important implications for the clinical use of HDACi.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Astrocytes / drug effects*
  • Astrocytes / metabolism
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis
  • Cytokines / drug effects
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Gene Expression / drug effects*
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology
  • Immunity, Innate / genetics*
  • Inflammation / genetics*
  • Microglia / drug effects*
  • Microglia / metabolism
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Valproic Acid / pharmacology


  • Cytokines
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
  • Hydroxamic Acids
  • trichostatin A
  • Valproic Acid