Oncogenic fusion proteins are capable of initiating tumorigenesis, but the role of their wild-type counterparts in this process is poorly understood. The mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene undergoes chromosomal translocations, resulting in the formation of oncogenic MLL fusion proteins (MLL-FPs). Here, we show that menin recruits both wild-type MLL and oncogenic MLL-AF9 fusion protein to the loci of HOX genes to activate their transcription. Wild-type MLL not only catalyzes histone methylation at key target genes but also controls distinct MLL-AF9-induced histone methylation. Notably, the wild-type Mll allele is required for MLL-AF9-induced leukemogenesis and maintenance of MLL-AF9-transformed cells. These findings suggest an essential cooperation between an oncogene and its wild-type counterpart in MLL-AF9-induced leukemogenesis.
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