Protein kinase D1 inhibits cell proliferation through matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion in prostate cancer

Cancer Res. 2010 Mar 1;70(5):2095-104. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-4155. Epub 2010 Feb 16.


We and others previously showed that protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is downregulated in several cancers including prostate; interacts with E-cadherin, a major cell adhesion epithelial protein; and causes increased cell aggregation and decreased motility of prostate cancer cells. In this study, we show that PKD1 complexes with beta3-integrin, resulting in activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase-ERK pathway, which causes increased production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, that is associated with shedding of soluble 80 kDa E-cadherin extracellular domain. Interestingly, decreased cell proliferation following PKD1 transfection was rescued by MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitors and augmented by recombinant MMP-2 (rMMP-2) and rMMP-9 proteins, suggesting an antiproliferative role for MMPs in prostate cancer. Translational studies by in silico analysis of publicly available DNA microarray data sets show a significant direct correlation between PKD1 and MMP-2 expression in human prostate tissues. The study shows a novel mechanism for antiproliferative effects of PKD1, a protein of emerging translational interest in several human cancers, through increased production of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in cancer cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cadherins / metabolism
  • Cell Growth Processes / physiology
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Down-Regulation
  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Integrin beta3 / metabolism
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / biosynthesis
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism*
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / biosynthesis
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism*
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / enzymology*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Protein Kinase C / genetics
  • Protein Kinase C / metabolism*
  • Transfection


  • Cadherins
  • Integrin beta3
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors
  • protein kinase D
  • Protein Kinase C
  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9