Biologically active factors produced by the intestine and transported by the aqueous and protein fraction of mesenteric lymph are now thought to contribute significantly to the development of distant organ failure in hemorrhagic shock. Despite the likely relevance of the protein composition of mesenteric lymph conditioned by hemorrhagic shock, there is no detailed description of its proteome. The aim of this study was to provide the first comprehensive description of the proteome of hemorrhagic shock-conditioned mesenteric lymph. Mesenteric lymph was collected from 16 male Wistar rats randomized to group 1 (n = 8) sham control and group 2 (n = 8) with hemorrhagic shock. The lymph was subjected to proteomic analysis using iTRAQ and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Sixty of the 245 proteins had a significant increase in their relative abundance in the hemorrhagic shock group. A bioinformatics approach highlighted the importance of the key gene ontology pathways relating to response to injury and metabolic responses as changing most significantly in shock. Using an interactome, we identified several highly connected proteins: 14-3-3 Zeta, 14-3-3 epsilon, actin, aldolase A, calmodulin, cofilin 1, cystatin C, fatty acid-binding protein 4, profilin 1, prolyl 4-hydrolase, peptidylprolyl isomerase, and transgelin. This study provides the first detailed description of protein changes in hemorrhagic shock-conditioned mesenteric lymph, and using a bioinformatics approach, we identified several targets for possible further research.