APOA1 and APOA4 gene polymorphisms influence the effects of dietary fat on LDL particle size and oxidation in healthy young adults

J Nutr. 2010 Apr;140(4):773-8. doi: 10.3945/jn.109.115964. Epub 2010 Feb 17.


We investigated whether APOA1 and APOA4 genotypes interact with diet to determine changes in LDL size and their susceptibility to oxidative modifications. A total of 97 healthy volunteers each consumed 3 diets for 4 wk: a SFA diet (38% fat, 20% SFA) followed by a low-fat and high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet (30% fat, 55% carbohydrate) or a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) diet (38% fat, 22% MUFA) following a randomized crossover design. For each diet, we determined susceptibility to oxidative modifications and LDL size. To investigate the combined effects of the APOA1 G-76A and APOA4 Thr347Ser single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), we defined 4 combined genotype groups: GG/ThrThr, GG/ThrSer, GA/ThrThr, and GA/ThrSer. After participants consumed the CHO diet, there was a significant decrease in LDL size with respect to high-fat diets in GG homozygotes for the APOA1 G-76A SNP. However, LDL size did not differ in GA carriers among participants consuming the 3 diets. Carriers of the A allele for this polymorphism had smaller LDL size as well as increased susceptibility to oxidation after the SFA diet than the GG homozygous. Moreover, the interaction between the APO A1 and APOA4 genotypes revealed that individuals with the GA/ThrSer genotype had larger LDL particle size during consumption of the MUFA diet than when they consumed the CHO diet. No differences in LDL oxidation were found in this analysis. Our study supports the concept that SNP in APOA1and APOA4 genes influences atherogenic characteristics of LDL particles in response to diet.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Apolipoprotein A-I / genetics
  • Apolipoprotein A-I / metabolism*
  • Apolipoproteins A / genetics
  • Apolipoproteins A / metabolism*
  • Cholesterol, LDL / chemistry
  • Cholesterol, LDL / metabolism*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diet
  • Dietary Fats / pharmacology*
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Young Adult


  • APOA1 protein, human
  • Apolipoprotein A-I
  • Apolipoproteins A
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Dietary Fats
  • apolipoprotein A-IV