Meiotic recombination, which promotes proper homologous chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division, normally occurs between allelic sequences on homologues. However, recombination can also take place between non-allelic DNA segments that share high sequence identity. Such non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) can markedly alter genome architecture during gametogenesis by generating chromosomal rearrangements. Indeed, NAHR-mediated deletions, duplications, inversions and other alterations have been implicated in numerous human genetic disorders. Studies in yeast have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms of meiotic NAHR as well as the cellular strategies that limit it.