Technical development in last two decades has made it possible for pulmonologists to do endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS). With EBUS mini-probe, the multilayered structure of the tracheobronchial wall can be analyzed better than any other imaging modality. Instead of fluoroscopic guided biopsy, EBUS can be used to biopsy peripheral lesions. EBUS-transbronchial needle aspiration has proved valuable for mediastinal lymph node staging of lung cancer. Studies have shown that EBUS is cost-effective as it reduces the need for more morbid and costly invasive procedure like mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy. Prospective studies are needed in India to see how EBUS will help in populations with high prevalence of tuberculosis.
Keywords: Bronchoscopy; lung cancer; ultrasound.