Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management

Ann Med. 2010 Mar;42(2):97-114. doi: 10.3109/07853890903559724.


Abstract Extraintestinal manifestations occur rather frequently in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), e.g. ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The present paper provides an overview of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnostic process, and management of rheumatic, metabolic, dermatologic (mucocutaneous), ophthalmologic, hepatobiliary, hematologic, thromboembolic, urinary tract, pulmonary, and pancreatic extraintestinal manifestations related to IBD. Articles were identified through search of the PubMed and Embase databases, the Cochrane Library, and the web sites of the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (cut-off date October 2009). The search terms 'Crohn's disease', 'inflammatory bowel disease', or 'ulcerative colitis' were combined with the terms 'adalimumab', 'anemia', 'arthritis', 'bronchiectasis', 'bronchitis', 'cutaneous manifestations', 'erythema nodosum', 'extraintestinal manifestations', 'hyperhomocysteinemia', 'infliximab', 'iridocyclitis', 'lung disease', 'ocular manifestations', 'osteomalacia', 'pancreatitis', 'primary sclerosing cholangitis', 'renal stones', 'sulfasalazine', 'thromboembolism', and 'treatment'. The search was performed on English-language reviews, practical guidelines, letters, and editorials. Articles were selected based on their relevance, and additional papers were retrieved from their reference lists. Since some of the diseases discussed are uncommon, valid evidence of treatment was difficult to obtain, and epidemiologic data on the rarer forms of extraintestinal manifestations are scarce. However, updates on the pathophysiology and treatment regimens are given for each of these disorders. This paper offers a current review of original research papers and randomized clinical trials, if any, within the field and makes an attempt to point out practical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of various extraintestinal manifestations related to IBD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anemia / complications
  • Eye Diseases / complications
  • Eye Diseases / immunology
  • Humans
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / complications*
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / immunology*
  • Rheumatic Diseases / complications*
  • Skin Diseases / complications
  • Skin Diseases / immunology
  • Thromboembolism / complications
  • Thromboembolism / immunology