It has been demonstrated that hydrogen can selectively reduce hydroxyl and peroxynitrite in vitro. Since most of the ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage is caused by hydroxyl radicals, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that hydrogen may be an effective radioprotective agent. This paper demonstrates that treating cells with hydrogen before irradiation could significantly inhibit ionizing irradiation(IR)-induced Human Lymphocyte AHH-1 cells apoptosis and increase cells viability in vitro. This paper also shows that hydrogen can protect gastrointestinal endothelia from radiation-induced injury, decrease plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) intestinal 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHDG) levels and increase plasma endogenous antioxidants in vivo. It is suggested that hydrogen has a potential as an effective and safe radioprotective agent.