Objective: To characterize total body bone mineral content (BMC) and total body and spinal bone mineral density (BMD) in perinatally HIV-infected and uninfected children/youth across puberty.
Design: HIV-infected (7-24 years) were randomly selected from six strata based on Tanner stage/protease inhibitor use. HIV-uninfected were frequency-matched by Tanner group and sociodemographic background to the HIV-infected.
Methods: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured BMC and BMD. Linear regression models tested differences in bone outcomes by HIV and the interaction of HIV by Tanner group (1-2, 3-4, 5). Models were performed separately by sex and adjusted for DXA scanner, race/ethnicity, height, age and lean body mass.
Results: HIV-infected (N = 236) and uninfected (N = 143) were comparable on sex and race/ethnicity. HIV-infected were slightly older (median 12.6 versus 11.9 years). In adjusted models, HIV-infected males had significantly lower total body BMC and total body and spinal BMD at Tanner 5, lower BMC at Tanner 3-4 and similar BMC and BMD at Tanner 1-2, compared to HIV-uninfected males. HIV-infected and uninfected girls did not differ significantly on any bone outcome, but there was a marginally significant interaction of HIV and Tanner group for spinal BMD. Kaletra/ritonavir was associated with lower BMC and total body BMD and nevirapine was associated with higher spinal BMD in a model with all HIV-infected.
Conclusions: Perinatally HIV-infected males showed more evidence of lower bone density especially in the final stage of pubertal development than HIV-infected girls and they may be at increased risk for bone disease during adulthood.