Purpose: To determine clinical features of intraocular and intraorbital foreign body (IOFB) injuries.
Material and methods: 62 patients with IOFB injury were retrospectively reviewed. Data on age, sex, activity at the time of injury, initial visual acuity and presenting clinical features were recorded. Special attention was paid on foreign bodies characteristics. Factors analyzed included: material, quantity and size of IOFB, site of entrance wound and final IOFB location.
Results: The mean patient age was 38.1 years. All but one patient were male. Hammering and chiselling were the most common activities at the time of injury. 93.5% of patients had single IOFB. Metallic foreign body comprised 85.5% of all cases. The average IOFB size was 3.9 x 15.1 mm. 83.9% of IOFBs were located inside the globe, among them: 46.1% in the anterior segment; 44.2% in the vitreous and the rest in the posterior part of globe. The most frequent entrance wound site was cornea (59.7%). Initial visual acuity was worse or equal 5/50 in 50% of the cases. Patients with greater size of IOFB had worse initial visual acuity. The most common clinical features, presenting at the time of injury, were corneal wound (64.5%), lens lesion (33.9%), endophthalmitis (29%) and vitreous hemorrhage (25.8%).
Conclusions: The majority of patients with IOFB injury were young male. Tool-related activities, particularly hammering, were more likely to cause of IOFB injuries. Single metallic foreign body occurred much more frequently. Cornea was the most frequent site of entrance wound. The vitreous and the anterior segment were the most common final location of IOFB. Increasing IOFB size was associated with worse initial visual acuity. IOFB injury has been found to be associated with a lot number of the ocular tissues lesions.