Oxygen uptake during treadmill running was measured at submaximal and maximal intensities in six different groups of endurance athletes (N = 134) and in seven endurance-trained men. The relationship between body mass (M) and oxygen uptake (VO2) was evaluated by deriving the exponent b in the equation VO2 = a.Mb. Thus, if b = 1, the oxygen uptake increases in proportion to body mass and oxygen uptake per kg is independent of body mass; if b less than 1, than the oxygen uptake per kg is inversely related to body mass. The exponent b was found to be less than unity for all groups for both submaximal (b = 0.76, s = 0.06) and maximal oxygen uptake (b = 0.71, s = 0.05). These results indicate that neither submaximal nor maximal oxygen uptake increases in proportion to body mass during running. The relationship between submaximal oxygen uptake and body mass observed in this study may explain why the oxygen uptake per kg of body mass has been found to be higher for children than for adults.