Background: Earlier diagnosis followed by multi-factorial cardiovascular risk intervention may improve outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Latent phase identification through screening requires structured, appropriately targeted population-based approaches. Providers responsible for implementing screening policy await evidence of clinical and cost effectiveness from randomised intervention trials in screen-detected T2DM cases. UK South Asians are at particularly high risk of abnormal glucose tolerance and T2DM. To be effective national screening programmes must achieve good coverage across the population by identifying barriers to the detection of disease and adapting to the delivery of earlier care. Here we describe the rationale and methods of a systematic community screening programme and randomised controlled trial of cardiovascular risk management within a UK multiethnic setting (ADDITION-Leicester).
Design: A single-blind cluster randomised, parallel group trial among people with screen-detected T2DM comparing a protocol driven intensive multi-factorial treatment with conventional care.
Methods: ADDITION-Leicester consists of community-based screening and intervention phases within 20 general practices coordinated from a single academic research centre. Screening adopts a universal diagnostic approach via repeated 75g-oral glucose tolerance tests within an eligible non-diabetic population of 66,320 individuals aged 40-75 years (25-75 years South Asian). Volunteers also provide detailed medical and family histories; complete health questionnaires, undergo anthropometric measures, lipid profiling and a proteinuria assessment. Primary outcome is reduction in modelled Coronary Heart Disease (UKPDS CHD) risk at five years. Seven thousand (30% of South Asian ethnic origin) volunteers over three years will be recruited to identify a screen-detected T2DM cohort (n = 285) powered to detected a 6% relative difference (80% power, alpha 0.05) between treatment groups at one year. Randomisation will occur at practice-level with newly diagnosed T2DM cases receiving either conventional (according to current national guidelines) or intensive (algorithmic target-driven multi-factorial cardiovascular risk intervention) treatments.
Discussion: ADDITION-Leicester is the largest multiethnic (targeting >30% South Asian recruitment) community T2DM and vascular risk screening programme in the UK. By assessing feasibility and efficacy of T2DM screening, it will inform national disease prevention policy and contribute significantly to our understanding of the health care needs of UK South Asians.
Trial registration: Clinicaltrial.gov (NCT00318032).