Deficiencies of micronutrients are highly prevalent in low-income countries. Inadequate intake of iodine impairs thyroid function and results in a spectrum of disorders. Other common deficiencies of micronutrients such as iron, selenium, vitamin A, and possibly zinc may interact with iodine nutrition and thyroid function. Randomised controlled intervention trials in iodine- and iron-deficient populations have shown that providing iron along with iodine results in greater improvements in thyroid function and volume than providing iodine alone. Vitamin A supplementation given alone or in combination with iodised salt can have a beneficial impact on thyroid function and thyroid size. Despite numerous studies of the effect of selenium on iodine and thyroid metabolism in animals, most published randomised controlled intervention trials in human populations failed to confirm an impact of selenium supplementation on thyroid metabolism. Little evidence is available on interactions between iodine and zinc metabolism.
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