Context: Reports on the cardiovascular and metabolic risk profile in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and the effects of GH treatment are scarce. Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) stimulates glucose uptake and triglyceride storage in adipose tissue.
Objectives: The aim was to study the metabolic and cardiovascular risk profile and ASP levels and to investigate the effects of GH treatment.
Design: We conducted a randomized controlled GH trial. Infants and prepubertal children were assigned to receive GH (1 mg/m(2) . d) or to serve as controls for 12 and 24 months, respectively.
Patients: Eighty-five children with PWS (mean +/- sd age of 4.9 +/- 3.0 yr) participated in the study.
Main outcome measures: We measured fat percentage (fat%) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, blood pressure, fasting insulin and glucose levels, serum lipids, and ASP levels.
Results: Mean +/- SD fat% was 28.4 +/- 6.2 in infants and 36.9 +/- 8.5 in prepubertal children. Fat% sd score (SDS) was above 2 SDS in 95% of prepubertal children. In addition, 63% of infants and 73% of prepubertal children demonstrated at least one cardiovascular risk factor, defined as hypertension or dyslipidemia. The metabolic syndrome was demonstrated in 5% of all children. Mean +/- sd baseline ASP was 107 +/- 45 nmol/liter (normal < 58 nmol/liter) and correlated with fat mass and TG levels. GH improved fat%SDS and the HDLc/LDLc ratio (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.04). GH had no effect on mean ASP levels in this population.
Conclusions: Many children with PWS had dyslipidemia and high ASP levels. GH improved fat% and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not ASP. High ASP levels may prevent complete normalization of fat%SDS during GH treatment but may contribute in keeping glucose and insulin levels within normal range.