Overall survival after transarterial lipiodol infusion chemotherapy with or without embolization for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: propensity score analysis

AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010 Mar;194(3):830-7. doi: 10.2214/AJR.09.3308.


Objective: Although iodized oil transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been found to have survival benefit in the care of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, iodized oil infusion chemotherapy without embolization has not been clearly found inferior to or equal to TACE. The purpose of this study was to determine whether one of these therapies is superior to the other or the two are equal in survival benefit and whether embolization with gelatin sponge particles is indispensable to prolonging survival.

Subjects and methods: A prospective nonrandomized observational cohort study was conducted over 8 years. Among 11,030 patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, 8,507 underwent TACE, and 2,523 underwent transarterial infusion therapy with an emulsion of iodized oil and an anticancer agent as initial treatment. Patients with extrahepatic metastasis or any previous treatment were excluded. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. To minimize selection bias, propensity score analysis was used to compare the two groups.

Results: During the follow-up period, 5,044 patients (46%) died. In the analysis of all patients, TACE was associated with a significantly higher survival rate than infusion therapy without embolization (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.56-0.64; p = 0.0001). The propensity score analysis showed that the hazard ratio for death in the TACE group (n = 1,699 patients) compared with the group who underwent infusion therapy without embolization (n = 1,699) was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.63-0.76; p = 0.0001). The median survival time of the TACE group was 2.74 years, and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 81%, 46%, and 25%. The corresponding values for the group who underwent transarterial infusion therapy without embolization were 1.98 years and 71%, 33%, and 16%.

Conclusion: Propensity score analysis showed that in the treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, TACE was associated with significantly better overall survival rates than was transarterial infusion therapy without embolization. TACE can be recommended as initial treatment of these patients.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy*
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / mortality
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology
  • Chemoembolization, Therapeutic*
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Cisplatin / administration & dosage
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Diagnostic Imaging
  • Doxorubicin / administration & dosage
  • Epirubicin / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Iodized Oil / therapeutic use*
  • Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Liver Neoplasms / mortality
  • Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mitomycin / administration & dosage
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Prospective Studies
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Survival Rate
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Zinostatin / administration & dosage


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Epirubicin
  • Mitomycin
  • Iodized Oil
  • Doxorubicin
  • Zinostatin
  • Cisplatin