This special issue of Biodemography and Social Demography assesses the value to social science and health research of incorporating biomeasures in a social survey. The focus is on the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), an ongoing, nationally representative panel study of U.S. households. A brief description of the PSID and the features that make it a promising survey for biomeasures is provided along with an overview of each individual article. Seven of the nine articles cover a major health domain: fatness and obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, inflammation and immune function and cardiovascular disease, daily stress exposure and reactivity, respiratory health, and genetics. These articles describe the scientific rationale for collecting data in each domain as well as the specific biological samples or measurements needed to assess the domain, potential respondent burden, ethical- and legal issues, fieldwork logistics, and costs. The final two articles address a pair of overarching issues: one provides international comparisons and perspectives and the other discusses ethical and legal concerns.