Background: Sodium bicarbonate has been recently proposed as a prophylactic measure for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We aimed to compare the efficacy of the combination of sodium bicarbonate with half saline, and half saline alone in preventing CIN in patients having uncontrolled hypertension, compensated severe heart failure or a history of pulmonary edema.
Methods: Seventy-two patients undergoing elective coronary angiography with a serum creatinine level > or =1.5 mg/dL who had uncontrolled hypertension, compensated severe heart failure or a history of pulmonary edema were prospectively enrolled in a single-center, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial from August 2007 to July 2008 and were assigned to either an infusion of sodium bicarbonate plus half saline (n=36) or half saline alone (n=36). The primary end point was an absolute (> or =0.5 mg/dL) or relative (> or =25%) increase in serum creatinine 48 hours after the procedure (CIN).
Results: There were no significant differences between the groups regarding their baseline demographic and biochemical characteristics, as well as the underlying disease. A total of 6.1% of the patients receiving sodium bicarbonate plus half saline developed CIN as opposed to 6.3% of the patients in the half saline group, which was not statistically different (odds ratio = 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-7.3; p=1.0).
Conclusion: The combination therapy of sodium bicarbonate plus half saline does not offer additional benefits over hydration with half saline alone in the prevention of CIN.