According to the guidelines of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2006 for perioperative cardiovascular evaluation for non-cardiac surgery, beta-blocker therapy should be considered for high-risk individuals undergoing vascular surgery or high- and intermediate-risk patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. This guideline might induce physicians to increasingly use beta-blockers in the hope of preventing perioperative cardiac complications. However, beta-blockers have potential beneficial effects outside the prevention of cardiac events. In addition to reducing anesthetic and analgesic requirements during the perioperative period, beta-blockers have neuroprotective effects in patients with brain trauma and possible effectiveness in the management of intraoperative awareness-induced post-traumatic stress disorder. Moreover, intrathecal administration of beta-blockers may have antinociceptive effects. Physicians need to bear in mind the benefits of beta-blockers for purposes other than preventing cardiac events when applied in the perioperative period, and they should be familiar with the pharmacodynamics and risk-benefit ratio with their use. This review focuses on possible extracardiac indications of beta-blockers.