Psychopathology and resilience following traumatic injury: a latent growth mixture model analysis

Rehabil Psychol. 2010 Feb;55(1):1-11. doi: 10.1037/a0018601.


Objective: To investigate trajectories of PTSD and depression following traumatic injury using latent class growth curve modeling.

Method: A longitudinal study of 330 injured trauma survivors was conducted and participants were assessed during hospitalization, and at 1, 3, and 6 months follow-up. Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) was assessed during hospitalization using the Acute Stress Disorder Interview (ASD-I), PTSD was measured at all follow-up with the Post-Traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and depression was measured at hospitalization with the (BSI) and at follow-up with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESDS). Covariates were explored, including coping self-efficacy, anger, education level, and mechanism of injury.

Results: Four latent classes were identified for PTSD and Depression symptoms: chronic distress, delayed distress, recovered, and resilience. When compared to the resilient group, individuals with chronic distress were more likely to have been assaulted, had higher levels of anger, and had less coping self-efficacy. The delayed distress group had lower education levels, higher levels of coping self-efficacy, and higher levels of anger. Individuals in the recovered group had fewer years of education, and higher levels of anger.

Conclusion: The majority of the injured trauma sample demonstrated resiliency, with those exhibiting distress doing so as a delayed, chronic, or recovered trajectory. Coping self efficacy, education, assaultive trauma type, and anger were important covariates of depression and PTSD trajectories. These results are similar to studies of individuals who experienced a major health threat and with survivors from the World Trade Center attacks in the U.S.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Depressive Disorder, Major* / diagnosis
  • Depressive Disorder, Major* / epidemiology
  • Depressive Disorder, Major* / etiology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Health Status
  • Humans
  • Life Change Events
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychology / methods*
  • Self Efficacy
  • September 11 Terrorist Attacks / psychology*
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic* / diagnosis
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic* / epidemiology
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic* / etiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult