Genomic instability--an evolving hallmark of cancer

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2010 Mar;11(3):220-8. doi: 10.1038/nrm2858.

Abstract

Genomic instability is a characteristic of most cancers. In hereditary cancers, genomic instability results from mutations in DNA repair genes and drives cancer development, as predicted by the mutator hypothesis. In sporadic (non-hereditary) cancers the molecular basis of genomic instability remains unclear, but recent high-throughput sequencing studies suggest that mutations in DNA repair genes are infrequent before therapy, arguing against the mutator hypothesis for these cancers. Instead, the mutation patterns of the tumour suppressor TP53 (which encodes p53), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A; which encodes p16INK4A and p14ARF) support the oncogene-induced DNA replication stress model, which attributes genomic instability and TP53 and ATM mutations to oncogene-induced DNA damage.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics
  • DNA Damage
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Genomic Instability*
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological
  • Mutation*
  • Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

Substances

  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • ATM protein, human
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases