Steroid hormone and insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) pathways control development and lifespan in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by regulating the activity of the nuclear receptor DAF-12 and the FoxO transcription factor DAF-16, respectively. The DAF-12 ligands Delta(4)- and Delta(7)-dafachronic acid (DA) promote bypass of the dauer diapause and proper gonadal migration during larval development; in adults, DAs influence lifespan. Whether Delta(4)- and Delta(7)-DA have unique biological functions is not known. We identified the 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD) family member HSD-1, which participates in Delta(4)-DA biosynthesis, as an inhibitor of DAF-16/FoxO activity. Whereas IIS promotes the cytoplasmic sequestration of DAF-16/FoxO, HSD-1 inhibits nuclear DAF-16/FoxO activity without affecting DAF-16/FoxO subcellular localization. Thus, HSD-1 and IIS inhibit DAF-16/FoxO activity via distinct and complementary mechanisms. In adults, HSD-1 was required for full lifespan extension in IIS mutants, indicating that HSD-1 interactions with IIS are context-dependent. In contrast to the Delta(7)-DA biosynthetic enzyme DAF-36, HSD-1 is dispensable for proper gonadal migration and lifespan extension induced by germline ablation. These findings provide insights into the molecular interface between DA and IIS pathways and suggest that Delta(4)- and Delta(7)-DA pathways have unique as well as overlapping biological functions in the control of development and lifespan.
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