The translation and evaluation of an Urdu version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1991 Feb;83(2):81-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1991.tb07370.x.


The translation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) into Urdu was undertaken by the authors in committee. After examining initial drafts by 6 independent translators, an agreed Urdu text was given to 6 back-translators, and subsequently modified further. The evaluation of the new translation was performed in 3 stages: evaluation of linguistic equivalence of items in a bilingual population; evaluation of conceptual equivalence by examining item-subscale correlations: and evaluation of scale equivalence by 2-way classification of high and low scorers. Satisfactory results at each stage suggest that the Urdu version is a reliable and valid translation of the HADS for use in Pakistan.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anxiety Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Anxiety Disorders / psychology
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison*
  • Depressive Disorder / diagnosis*
  • Depressive Disorder / psychology
  • Humans
  • Language*
  • Pakistan
  • Personality Tests / statistics & numerical data*
  • Psychometrics
  • Translations*