Vitamin D insufficiency: implications for the immune system

Pediatr Nephrol. 2010 Sep;25(9):1597-606. doi: 10.1007/s00467-010-1452-y. Epub 2010 Feb 24.


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by a loss of kidney function and dysregulation of vitamin D metabolism. Well known are the defects in final activation of vitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], resulting in renal osteodystrophy. However, in recent years, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) has been identified as having effects far beyond calcium and bone metabolism. In this review, specific attention is given to the effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on the immune system and the implications of vitamin D deficiency, a feature of many patients with CKD, on immune function.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Calcitriol / metabolism*
  • Calcitriol / therapeutic use
  • Chronic Disease
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Humans
  • Kidney Diseases / drug therapy
  • Kidney Diseases / immunology*
  • Kidney Diseases / metabolism
  • Receptors, Calcitriol / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / drug therapy
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / immunology*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / metabolism
  • Vitamins / therapeutic use


  • Receptors, Calcitriol
  • Vitamins
  • Calcitriol