Toward the limits of sandwich immunoassay of very low molecular weight molecules

Anal Chem. 2010 Mar 15;82(6):2536-40. doi: 10.1021/ac100058f.


A model study aiming at exploring the limits of sandwich immunoassays of very small molecules is described. Combinatorial association of antibody couples to detect small molecules constituted by two small epitopes connected via different linear spacers was used to investigate the minimum size of compounds susceptible to be simultaneously bound by two distinct antibodies. The results clearly indicated that despite the fact that below 10 carbon atoms unfavorable interactions between antibodies took place, molecules bearing two epitopes separated by only 5 carbon atoms might be directly detected by sandwich immunoassays.

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology
  • Epitopes / immunology
  • Histidine / immunology
  • Homovanillic Acid / analogs & derivatives
  • Homovanillic Acid / immunology
  • Immunoassay / methods*
  • Molecular Weight


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Epitopes
  • Histidine
  • Homovanillic Acid