Analysis of an engineered plasma kallikrein inhibitor and its effect on contact activation

Biol Chem. 2010 Apr;391(4):425-33. doi: 10.1515/BC.2010.047.


Engineering of protein-protein interactions is used to enhance the affinity or specificity of proteins, such as antibodies or protease inhibitors, for their targets. However, fully diversifying all residues in a protein-protein interface is often unfeasible. Therefore, we limited our phage library for the serine protease inhibitor ecotin by restricting it to only tetranomial diversity and then targeted all 20 amino acid residues involved in protein recognition. This resulted in a high-affinity and highly specific plasma kallikrein inhibitor, ecotin-Pkal. To validate this approach we dissected the energetic contributions of each wild type (wt) or mutated surface loop to the binding of either plasma kallikrein (PKal) or membrane-type serine protease 1. The analysis demonstrated that a mutation in one loop has opposing effects depending on the sequence of surrounding loops. This finding stresses the cooperative nature of loop-loop interactions and justifies targeting multiple loops with a limited diversity. In contrast to ecotin wt, the specific loop combination of ecotin-Pkal discriminates the subtle structural differences between the active enzymes, PKal and Factor XIIa, and their respective zymogen forms. We used ecotin-Pkal to specifically inhibit contact activation of human plasma at the level mediated by plasma kallikrein.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Enzyme Activation / drug effects
  • Enzyme Precursors / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Enzyme Precursors / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Mutation
  • Partial Thromboplastin Time
  • Periplasmic Proteins / genetics
  • Periplasmic Proteins / metabolism
  • Periplasmic Proteins / pharmacology
  • Plasma Kallikrein / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Plasma Kallikrein / metabolism*
  • Protease Inhibitors / metabolism
  • Protease Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Protein Engineering / methods*
  • Substrate Specificity


  • Enzyme Precursors
  • Periplasmic Proteins
  • Protease Inhibitors
  • Plasma Kallikrein