Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), the main cellular inhibitor of signal transducers and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), has been described as a modulator of DNA binding transcription factors. The exploration of the emerging roles of PIAS3 in immune regulation is a growing and fascinating field. Recent discoveries have shed new light on the key role of PIAS3 in the regulation of transcriptional activity, and on the molecular mechanism involved. These findings suggest that the known functions of this signalling molecule are merely the "tip of the iceberg". This article reviews the challenging questions regarding the link between PIAS3 and the intracellular signalling in immune cells. Some of the known functions of PIAS3 that potentially modulate key proteins in the immune system will also be discussed.
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