Here, we investigated the physiological role of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AtNUDX6, the gene encoding ADP-ribose (Rib)/NADH pyrophosphohydrolase, using its overexpressor (Pro35S:AtNUDX6) or disruptant (KO-nudx6). The level of NADH in Pro35S:AtNUDX6 and KO-nudx6 plants was decreased and increased, respectively, compared with that of the control plants, while the level of ADP-Rib was not changed in either plant. The activity of pyrophosphohydrolase toward NADH was enhanced and reduced in the Pro35S:AtNUDX6 and KO-nudx6 plants, respectively. The decrease in the activity of NADH pyrophosphohydrolase and the increase in the level of NADH were observed in the rosette and cauline leaves, but not in the roots, of the KO-nudx6 plants. Notably, the expression level of AtNUDX6 and the activity of NADH pyrophosphohydrolase in the control plants, but not in the KO-nudx6 plants, were increased by the treatment with salicylic acid (SA). The expression of SA-induced genes (PR1, WRKY70, NIMIN1, and NIMIN2) depending on NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1), a key component required for pathogen resistance, was significantly suppressed and enhanced in the KO-nudx6 and Pro35S:AtNUDX6 plants, respectively, under the treatment with SA. Induction of thioredoxin h5 (TRX-h5) expression, which catalyzes a SA-induced NPR1 activation, was suppressed and accelerated in the KO-nudx6 and Pro35S:AtNUDX6 plants, respectively. The expression of isochorismate synthase1, required for the regulation of SA synthesis through the NPR1-mediated feedback loop, was decreased and increased in the KO-nudx6 and Pro35S:AtNUDX6 plants, respectively. Judging from seed germination rates, the KO-nudx6 plants had enhanced sensitivity to the toxicity of high-level SA. These results indicated that AtNUDX6 is a modulator of NADH rather than ADP-Rib metabolism and that, through induction of TRX-h5 expression, AtNUDX6 significantly impacts the plant immune response as a positive regulator of NPR1-dependent SA signaling pathways.