Estimation of total usual calcium and vitamin D intakes in the United States

J Nutr. 2010 Apr;140(4):817-22. doi: 10.3945/jn.109.118539. Epub 2010 Feb 24.


Our objective in this study was to estimate calcium intakes from food, water, dietary supplements, and antacids for U.S. citizens aged >or=1 y using NHANES 2003-2006 data and the Dietary Reference Intake panel age groupings. Similar estimates were calculated for vitamin D intake from food and dietary supplements using NHANES 2005-2006. Diet was assessed with 2 24-h recalls; dietary supplement and antacid use were determined by questionnaire. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate usual nutrient intake from dietary sources. The mean daily nutrient intake from supplemental sources was added to the adjusted dietary intake estimates to produce total usual nutrient intakes for calcium and vitamin D. A total of 53% of the U.S. population reported using any dietary supplement (2003-2006), 43% used calcium (2003-2006), and 37% used vitamin D (2005-2006). For users, dietary supplements provided the adequate intake (AI) recommendation for calcium intake for approximately 12% of those >or=71 y. Males and females aged 1-3 y had the highest prevalence of meeting the AI from dietary and total calcium intakes. For total vitamin D intake, males and females >or=71, and females 14-18 y had the lowest prevalence of meeting the AI. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher prevalence of groups meeting the AI for calcium and vitamin D. Monitoring usual total nutrient intake is necessary to adequately characterize and evaluate the population's nutritional status and adherence to recommendations for nutrient intake.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Calcium / administration & dosage*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diet
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Female
  • Food Analysis
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Mental Recall
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Policy
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Nutritional Requirements
  • United States
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage*
  • Young Adult


  • Vitamin D
  • Calcium