This study determined the allelic frequency and genotypic distribution of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism and serum ACE activity in Turkish patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). A colorimetric assay measured serum ACE activity in 73 of 97 subjects. Frequencies for II, ID, and DD genotypes were 19.6, 53.6, and 26.8% in the OSAS group and 15, 38, and 47% in the control group, respectively (P = 0.02). The I allele frequency was higher in the OSAS group than in the healthy control group (P = 0.02). Carrying the I allele (II or ID genotypes) increased OSAS risk 2.41 times in the Turkish population. Mean ACE activity was significantly lower in patients with the II genotype than in the DD genotype (P = 0.011), and ACE activity was significantly lower in patients with severe OSAS than in those with mild OSAS (P = 0.006). Our results suggest that II and ID genotypes of the ACE gene increase the risk of developing OSAS in the Turkish population.