The widespread use of wireless telecommunications devices, particularly mobile phones and wireless networks, has resulted in increased human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields. Although national and international agencies have established safety guidelines for exposure to RF fields, concerns remain about the potential for adverse health outcomes to occur in relation to RF field exposure. The extensive literature on RF fields and health was reviewed by a number of authorities, including the Royal Society of Canada (1999). This report is the third in a series of updates to the original report of the Royal Society of Canada, covering the period 2004-2007. In particular, the present study examined new data on (1) dosimetry and exposure assessment, (2) biological effects of RF fields such as enzyme induction, and (3) toxicological effects, including genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Epidemiological studies of the potential health effects of RF exposure, particularly from mobile phones, were determined, along with human and animal studies of neurological and behavioural effects. Within the last 4 yrs investigators concluded that there is no clear evidence of adverse health effects associated with RF fields, although continued research is recommended to address specific areas of concern, including exposure to RF fields among children using mobile phones. The results of the ongoing 13-country World Health Organization INTERPHONE study of mobile phones may provide important new information on the potential cancer risks associated with mobile phone use.