We evaluated oral 1,25-vitamin D3 for as long as 26 months in six prepubescent children with renal osteodystrophy previously treated with vitamin D2. Therapy was given at 14 to 41 ng per kilogram per day to correct hypocalcemia and reverse bone disease. Serum levels of 1,25-vitamin D3 were initially reduced at 15 +/- 5 pg per milliliter (mean +/- S.E.M.) and after treatment rose to 54 +/- 13. Serum calcium rose from 7.5 +/- 1.6 mg per deciliter (mean +/- S.D.) to 9.8 +/- 0.6 after one month (P less than 0.02). Alkaline phosphatase activity fell from 536 +/- 298 to 208 +/- 91 IU per liter after 12 months (P less than 0.05). Serum immunoreactive parathyroid levels fell from 900 +/- 562 microliter eq per milliliter 411 +/- 377. Healing of rickets and subperiosteal erosions was found. Remineralization of bone was demonstrated by the photon absorption technic. In four patients growth velocity, evaluated for 12 months before and after therapy, increased from 2.6 +/- 0.8 to 8.0 +/- 3.2 cm per year. Growth velocity per year increased from less than third percentile in each to the 10th to 97th percentile after therapy. Height increment ranged from 27 to 113 per cent of that expected for change in chronologic age and 40 to 114 per cent expected for change in bone age after therapy. This trial demonstrates that oral 1,25-vitamin D3 can reverse renal bone disease and increase growth in uremic children.