Screening for chronic kidney disease in Australia: a pilot study in the community and workplace

Kidney Int Suppl. 2010 Mar;(116):S9-16. doi: 10.1038/ki.2009.538.


The pilot program Kidney Evaluation for You (KEY) was conducted in Australia to screen for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Targeting people at high risk (those with diabetes, hypertension, a first-degree relative with kidney failure, or age >50 years), KEY aimed to establish community-based screening protocols, assess efficacy in promoting changes in risk-factor management, and explore participant CKD awareness. KEY offered free cardiovascular and kidney checks using point-of-care testing for on-site pathology measurements (estimated glomerular filtration rate, hemoglobin A1c, cholesterol, hemoglobin, albuminuria), lifestyle assessment, and exit interviews. Participants were telephoned at 3 months to ascertain whether KEY advice had been followed. Community and health professional support was strong; 99% of participants rated involvement as beneficial. Of 402 high-risk individuals recruited, findings were suggestive of CKD in 20.4%. Of these, 69% had hypertension, 30% diabetes, and 40% elevated total cholesterol. All participants with CKD stage 3b or higher were aged >61 years. Overall, 58% of participants were referred to their primary care providers for further action; of these, 82% saw their doctors in the next 3 months and 94% discussed KEY results. Follow-up telephone contact was successful for 82% of participants. A change in management occurred for 67%. Thus, the KEY approach to early detection of CKD and selected referral of participants was largely successful.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Australia / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Complications / diagnosis
  • Early Diagnosis
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / diagnosis
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / diagnosis*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Mass Screening*
  • Middle Aged
  • Pilot Projects
  • Program Evaluation
  • Proteinuria / diagnosis
  • Referral and Consultation
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / diagnosis*
  • Risk Factors
  • Workplace