In September 2004 a mumps outbreak occurred at an international hotel school in The Netherlands. We investigated this outbreak to identify risk factors for mumps. There were 105 mumps cases (overall mumps attack rate (AR) 12% (95% CI: 10-15%)). The AR for Dutch vaccinated and unvaccinated participants was 12% (95% CI: 10-15%) and 15% (95% CI: 3-42%), respectively. Independent risk factor was mumps contact. Explanations for the relatively high AR among vaccinated participants include primary vaccine failure, waning immunity and incomplete vaccine-induced immunity in the context of high mumps virus exposure in a school party and a crowded boarding school.
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