Energy and macronutrient requirements for physical fitness in exercising subjects

Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug;29(4):413-23. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2010.02.002. Epub 2010 Mar 2.


Optimal nutritional intakes are critical for health- and skill-related physical fitness. This review details the effect of energy restriction and supplementation on physical fitness, discusses the optimal chronic macronutrient intakes for physical fitness in exercising subjects and finally overviews the impact of short-term intakes of carbohydrate and protein, before, during and after exercise, on physical fitness of athletes. The present standings highlight that it is essential that health care givers personalize nutritional advice to meet the specific needs of exercising individuals while applying the described recommendations. It reminds the difficulty of providing straight nutritional recommendations for physical fitness on the basis of evidence-based medicine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Athletes
  • Caloric Restriction / adverse effects
  • Diet*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / adverse effects
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fats / adverse effects
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Proteins / adverse effects
  • Dietary Supplements / adverse effects
  • Energy Intake*
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Nutritional Requirements*
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Physical Fitness*
  • Precision Medicine / methods
  • Time Factors


  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Proteins