Advances in analysis of longitudinal data

Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2010;6:79-107. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.032408.153550.


In this review, we explore recent developments in the area of linear and nonlinear generalized mixed-effects regression models and various alternatives, including generalized estimating equations for analysis of longitudinal data. Methods are described for continuous and normally distributed as well as categorical (binary, ordinal, nominal) and count (Poisson) variables. Extensions of the model to three and four levels of clustering, multivariate outcomes, and incorporation of design weights are also described. Linear and nonlinear models are illustrated using an example involving a study of the relationship between mood and smoking.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Models, Psychological*
  • Psychology, Clinical / methods*
  • Psychology, Clinical / statistics & numerical data*