BCL10 is an apoptotic regulatory molecule identified through its direct involvement in t(1; 14)(p22; q32) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and was implicated in the pathogenesis of this and several other tumour types. BCL10 was recognized as an antigen receptor-specific regulator of NF-kappaB, which showed close association with immune responses. In this study, we cloned and characterized BCL10 from the porcine spleen and analysed its genomic structure. BCL10 was mapped to SSC4q21-q23 by the IMpRH panels, it is closely linked to the marker S0161 and SW1461. This gene has three exons and two introns. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that BCL10 was widely expressed in all the examined tissues. Transient transfection indicated that porcine BCL10 was located in cytoplasm in Pig Kidney Epithelial cells. BCL10 gene displays the opposite expression trend between the two treatments mimic virus and bacteria of polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (Poly I:C) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The level of the BCL10 mRNA was up-regulated during 12-24 h and peaking at 48 h when treated with LPS, whereas it was down-regulated during 0-48 h and highest at 0 h (cells without treating with Poly I:C) when treated with Poly I:C. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site was identified in the 3'-untranslated region of porcine BCL10. Association analysis revealed that this SNP was significantly associated with intermediate cell mass (eosinophile granulocyte, basophile granulocyte and histoleucocyte) percentage, absolute intermediate cell mass count and mean red blood cell volume of 0-day-old pigs, and red blood cell count of 17-day-old pigs (P < 0.05), and also had significant associations with red blood cell count and haemoglobin concentration of 32-day-old pigs (P < 0.01).